Technology for Niger Delta

July 14, 2017
Here’s a List of Flood Prone LGAs in the Niger Delta
July 17, 2017

Biosand filtration is a simple, cheap and effective means of removing diseasecausing micro-organisms from contaminated water. It is an effective Point-of-Use (POU) water treatment technology effective at the household level.

Water Treatment

Slow sand filters contain fine sand and usually function without chemical pre-treatment, such as chlorination or flocculation. Water passes slowly through the filter at a flow velocity of 0.1 to 0.2m/h downwards through a bed of fine sand (graded to coarse gravel at the bottom). A Biosand Filter (BSF) is an adaptation of the traditional slow sand filter, which has been used for community drinking water treatment for 200 years.

The Biosand filter is smaller (about 1 m tall, 0.3 m wide on each side) and adapted so that it does not flow continuously, making it suitable for use in people’s homes. The filter container can be made of concrete or plastic. It is filled with layers of specially selected and prepared sand and gravel. Water passes slowly through the filter downwards through a bed of fine sand (graded to coarse gravel at the bottom).

Pathogens are removed mainly in the very top layer of the filter bed where a biological film, called the schmutzdecke’, builds up. In a well-designed and well-operated filter this film strains out bacteria. Deeper in the sand bed bacteria that pass through the schmutzdecke are killed by other micro-organisms or they become attached to particles of sand until they die.

Schmutzdecke: This is a biologically active layer or bio-film in the top of the sand which creates an environment where most pathogens (disease-causing organisms) cannot survive. The micro-organisms in the bio-film consume pathogens as they are trapped in and on the sand surface; other filtration mechanisms support the quality improvement.


The biosand filter has been studied in the field and in labs. It has been shown to remove the following from contaminated water:

  • Up to 100% of helminths (worms)
  • Up to 100% of protozoa
  • Up to 98.5% of bacteria
  • 70-99% of viruses

The filter can also remove up to 95% of turbidity (dirt and cloudiness), and up to 95% of iron. People often don’t like iron in water as it turns water, laundry and food red!


When the flow rate reduces, over time, the filter is cleaned by scraping the top sand layer in a process called “swirl and dump”. After this procedure, the user should wait 8 days before using the filtered water without further treatment, to allow the bio-layer to fully regenerate.

Conditions for effective use

The schmutzdecke takes time to be effective, so water needs to flow through a new filter for at least a week (on initial set-up 21 days is recommended) before it will work efficiently.

The raw water should contain a fair amount of oxygen to promote useful biological activity in the schmutzdecke and further down the filter bed.

For the filter to perform well there should be no sudden changes in the flow rate and the water should not be very turbid (cloudy with suspended solids.

PIND’s ATED program has piloted BSFs in the riverine area of the Niger Delta and is now working in partnership with local community organizations to scale-up BSF use.

For more information on the ATED program email:

Comments are closed.